linkthink re: hip-hop, reggae, the US, jamaica, and anything else wayne wants to wax on


linky link link

  • blogariddims 'bout to launch! get ready for transatlantic aural adventures.

  • laptop for rastafari (thx tomas !)

  • ebog on whether (or not) to go gully or gospel

  • on a more solipsistic tip:

    i have to admit -- i'm oddly tickled that tj maxx'o'lantern remains my "most viewed" photo at flickr, all serges aside. (now there's a good way to mess with the ratings.)

  • and

    tomorrow marks 2 years (!) since i picked this blog thing up again. so far, so good. thanks to you all - yes, even you - for keeping me at it. i really do appreciate the feedback and trackback and the kind words and corrections. we'll be making some changes here at w&w soon, so please stay tuned.

  • finally, bravo to my UW-madison colleague, richard miller, who composed the following reflection on questions of ethnocentrism in a response to a thread on the unfortunately otherwise typically less "measured" SEM list. those of you who are acquainted with ethnomusicological debates and history will, i hope, find richard's post a learned, thoughtful perspective on what has long been a rolling, roiling rancor; those who are not will, i hope, find it a stimulating set of ideas about how one goes about (and how some went about) making sense of the world of music and music in the world.

    >Victor Grauer wrote:
    > But isn't the obsession with tuning already typically "western," thus
    > ethnocentric?

    In a word, no.

    First, the suggestion that tuning is an exclusively western "obsession" is easily negated. The example that immediately springs to mind is tuning theory in Chinese musicology, with the first blast appearing in the "Lushi chunqiu," written by emperor Qin's prime minister sometime in the 3rd century BC, and culminating with the mathematical definition of equal temperament some 100 years before that formula appeared in Europe. On a practical level, the fine distinctions made by, for example, a Javanese penglaras when tuning a complete gamelan set, or when comparing two sets, reveals a very keen interest in tuning even though there is no apparent tradition of a mathematically informed discourse on tuning. The same is true of organology and other forms of classification--the suggestion that classification is either exclusive to or somehow uniquely employed by the west is entirely unsupported (and unsupportable) by historical or ethnographic evidence. And, I would argue, the same is true for the "incorporation" of foreign specialists into a philosophical or scientific discourse--see the history of the Islamic world during the European middle
    ages, among other topics.

    Second, we need to carefully separate provenance and ideology. Even if it were true that an interest in tuning was a phenomenon exclusive to Europe and the Americas, that would not automatically make it "ethnocentric." Ethnocentrism requires at the very least an insistence on viewing foreign groups from the point of view of one's own, and to a very great extent it also implies the fundamental superiority of one's own group over foreign groups. The first aspect, which we might call "weak ethnocentrism," is difficult to apply here if we recognize that the interest in tuning is hardly unique to the west. Furthermore, although it is certainly possible to bend an interest in tuning systems toward the elevation of western (elite) music above all others, and this was done by numerous 19th century thinkers (Chappell comes to mind, and some members of the Kulturkrieslehre approach as well), such was expressly not the goal of the early comparative musicologists such as Helmholtz, Ellis, Hornbostel, etc., much less the generation(s) that saw the transition to ethnography -- Fox-Strangways, Kunst, etc. Helmholtz, for example, says that the fact that he likes German Romantic music above all others in no way justifies elevating its aesthetics to universal law, and Ellis grounded his extensive study of non-western scales on an awareness of the variety of tuning systems in Europe itself--witness his table of English organ tunings, or his discussion of the dispute between symhonies over concert pitch. If tuning in "the west" cannot be characterized as a single unique system, how then can it be elevated over all others?

    The question of the relationship of ethnomusicology and its fore-runners to colonialism is an important one, but it is not an easy question, nor can it be adequately addressed without looking at the entire package. What intellectual discipline of similar or older lineage can fairly say that it developed outside of colonial practice? Archaeology? Napoleon would disagree. Astronomy and physics? Ask the Dutch scholars manning the observatory in Bogor, or in fact any of the expeditions aiming at measuring solar eclipses and the like. Mathematics? Not in the case of munitions development, or the discipline of logistics, so important to colonial enterprises. Philosophy? Nietzsche and Heidegger took major advantage of German translations of Chinese and Indian philosophical texts, which came about because of the European colonization of China and India. The fact is, what we sometimes over-optimistically call "western civilization" would not exist without colonialism, so it is hardly surprising that there would be some relationship there with ethnomusicology, nor that the relationship would bear some ambivalence. So what else is new?

    I think we need to recognize that some of the decisions and interest of early comparative musicology, like tuning systems and organology, do not represent ideological efforts at extending colonialism into music, deliberate or otherwise, but were good-faith efforts to find some common ground on which to understand the variety of musical experience. Comparison of this kind requires measureable features, and in this period preceding the development of ethnology as the basis for researching that variety, musical instruments and tuning systems were among the very few aspects of music that were readily available for study. Today, when ethnomusicologists can get at the living practice of music so much more easily, tuning systems and organology have become much less important to the discipline, as have the questions answerable through the study of tuning systems and organology.

    Times change, but it would be disingenuous to fault 19th century comparative musicologists for not being part of our contemporaneous world. I'm with Victor in this regard: let's not make ourselves (or our predecessors) out to be simpler than we really are. Ethnomusicology has made an enormous effort since the rise of post-structuralism (at least) to show the complexities of the music and societies we study. If we refuse to do the same for ourselves, we deserve to be called "ethnocentric."

    Richard Miller
    University of Wisconsin-Madison


bubble on

madison skyline, dancing, from lake mendota

  • while we're talking electronic music history, don't miss the vintage "educational film" banananutrament pointed me to.

  • whattaya joe, indeed? despite its quick'n'dirty character, that jimi-TI mash i mashed a minute ago caught some listeners' ears, even prompting requests for a higher-quality version (good lookin'..). in an age of serato and such, how could i not oblige? so here it is in all its 192bit splendor. jimi deserves better anyhow. (and while we're on topic, here's an old jimi remix i did about 7 years ago.)

  • if you're into millions of poems (happy way-belated bday, jordan!) or thousands of paintings, you might like a collage a day.

  • siebe thiessen returns with mo' mixes, including an earful of "post-bubbling" beats.

    been thinking about bubbling a bunch lately. for one, i was trying to track down the person who wrote that piece someone pasted into a comment here a while back. for three, bubbling seems uncannily like (early) reggaeton and rio funk insofar as it approaches its source materials as a vast canvas of fair use / fair game samples, not to mention how it favors certain tracks and genres - sharing a good number of early90s dancehall references with reggaeton (but seemingly drawing on a lot of filmi too, at least recently, accding to auratheft), and even chopping up well-worn breaks and rapidly retriggering drums in a similar manner to both "proto-" reggaeton and "baile" funk, as well as drawing heavily on hip-hop, r&b, and - in a much heavier manner than reggaeton or funk (where the odd hoover is never too out-of-place) - rave music (e.g., hardcore techno). and who can resist those beefed-up, chopped-up soca-tempo drum tracks and half-time, double-time samples? it's funky, interesting stuff, yet oddly, it's largely ignored in poco-beats discourse, to coin a phrase. (perhaps because it's from "the continent"? too metroprole maybe?)

    [update: just recovered this ugandan article on reggaeton which, not insignificantly, uses the term "bubbling" to describe the author's reception of the genre's early efforts, noting explicitly the link to the most seminal - and bubblin' - dancehall riddims of the day. 'n round and round we go. love to hear some of that dj rota and dj shiru stuff.]

  • and while we're on online mixes, let me direct you to tim r-j's first avant classical mix. it's funky and interesting too !


electro class of '06

[Update (31 March 2010): This post, originally published in June of 2006, was "reset" to "draft" status on 29 March 2010 because of a spurious DMCA takedown notification. I am republishing it now, having removed what I believe to be the offending material: namely, a couple links to DJ mixes which may or may not contain infringements of copyrighted materials -- not that anyone made it clear to me what that might be. (Blogger's email was very vague, and the Chilling Effects Clearinghouse to which I was directed is suffering from such a heavy backlog that it may be weeks or days before I get a chance to see the actual DMCA complaint, which will likely still tell me little or nothing about what someone thinks constitutes infringement below.) I want to note that the mixes to which I linked have long been unavailable, and so the automated takedown notice I received is essentially saying that I am infringing copyright by directing people to a 404 error. Beyond that simple fact, however, I want to register some protest over the burden of proof falling on me: I did not make the mixes in question but am simply linking to them; moreover, it is a rather gray area to claim that a fragment of a track recontextualized in a mix -- and one with critical commentary guiding its aesthetic -- is an infringement of copyright. My belief is that this use -- on the part of the DJ, never mind a blogger like me simply linking to it -- is firmly protected by "fair use." I am sorry that Blogger/blogspot and the DMCA make it so easy for spurious takedowns to happen as opposed to facilitating the important re-accounting of the balance that copyright is supposed to strike. It's amazing to me that two defunct links to mixes, which may or may not infringe copyrights, are enough to remove and potentially delete a post with a great deal of other content in it. This vulnerability to bad law is one reason that I moved my blog from Blogger to a private server years ago. Incidentally, in case this post again becomes "reset," I have republished it, in full, here: http://wayneandwax.com/?p=3186]

harvard's sunlit serge

it's now been about a month since the electro class wound up. an ambitious, breakneck survey of the wide world of "electronic music" (broadly defined), it was a delight to teach once again, especially with students joining from as far as edinburgh and omaha. i won't be offering this particular course again, but the endeavor - and two years experience working through the materials - has deeply informed my perspective on "electronic music" and i look forward to digging into various areas, themes, and histories in new ways in other courses in future years.

i suppose the biggest thing i'll take from the experience is similar to what i hope most students come away with: an enriched sense of how these various genres and styles relate to each other, sonically and socio-culturally, and how we can hear histories of social movements and cultural politics in contemporary sonic structures (especially in the way they draw musical genealogies - often in a rather audible, immediate manner).

considering that we began with stockhausen and the beatles and proceeded to trace "experimental" and "popular" movements (and their interplay) in "electronic" music from the 50s to today, it seemed appropriate to end with a twin tutorial on oldschool analog synthesis and newschool max/msp from local versatile virtuoso, keith fullerton whitman (who, i should note, performs with matmos on the latest podcast from the dublab).

keith gave an excellent introduction to both systems of synthesis, including showing us his max setups for both kfw and hrvatski mode - the latter requiring that one could operate it well drunk, which is, to paraphrase keith, how breakcore is supposed to be played.

that there (decent but terse) wikipedia article on breakcore - see also, e.g., kid kameleon's xlr8r article - provides as good an opportunity as any to discuss the final project for the course, which required each student to create or make a substantial edit (or series of edits) to a wikipedia entry on some aspect of "electronic music" - defined as broadly as the course defined it (which is to say, broadly).

the guiding idea was to attempt to enrich as we engaged with public discourse on electronic music and to marshal our collective efforts toward something that might go further than term-papers that might not receive a second glance or final exams that definitely wouldn't receive a second glance. (not to mention to teach students how an increasingly ubiquitous research-tool - that is, wikipedia - actually works, and thus to discourage, among other things, the practice of citing it as an "authority," rather than as a particular expression of, or "consensus" around, an idea - which is, of course, how one should approach any text.)

my main concerns were: 1) that a wikipedia entry (or even series of entries/edits) might not quite be substantial enough for a final project; and 2) that the "neutral" POV standard of wikipedia might make it difficult for students to engage at the critical level that i would like them to, dealing not just with description and synthesis of information in their posts but also looking at how their subjects are enmeshed in certain discourses, etc., and to explore somewhat self-reflexively how their endeavors fit into the larger public conversation about electronic music. for concern #1, we adopted a slightly fuzzy "substance" standard - judged relatively across the class - to be sure that people were doing an adequate amount of independent research and original work. (it turned out to be rather helpful that one can track another wikipedian's contributions quite precisely.) for concern #2, we enforced an explicit policy of discussing the endeavor itself on our class blog and on the appropriate "talk" pages at wikipedia.

here are three standout contributions:

1) an entry on the orb's seminal adventures beyond the underworld
2) an entry on the ambient side of psytrance, aka psybient
3) and an impressively complete entry on video-musikers, hexstatic


finally, i'll to point people to a couple mixes that our edinburgh-based classmate put together. the first is an orientalist-tinged dubstep mix, the second a romp across various african popular genres. descriptions and tracklists follow..

melonhands, i need dub(step)

"dubstep mix i did in ableton - LOTS of 'eastern' influence/appropriation present here!"


nettle - unknown halfstep (!)
pinch and p dutty - war dub
pinch - qawwali VIP
tinariwen - amassakoul n tenere
i-wiz - habibi
digital mystikz - ancient memories (skream remix)
caspa - for the kids
distance - taipan
aphex twin - on
black ham - necron
toasty - angel
filastine - dreams from wounded mouth
mutamassik - high alert aala teta
amadou and mariam - toubala kono


melonhands, fatmix

"a mix of african tracks (from all over africa) for my dad's birthday - the end kind of lets it down but it's still very listenable ;) starts off with 20 minutes of soukous/ndombola etc style stuff then a bit more of a mixture"



chitown to beantown

been on the road (see above), thus the lack of blogginess.

back today and offering up - tonight! - a live sequel to last year's boston mashacre over at mashave (see below). whereas the previous preferred pop this year's edition will look to the lesser-known and lefter-field: undie hip-hop, classic cambridge bellydance, punk'n'ska, and tonebursts of various sorts.

coming soon to an mp3 mix near you..


!cabron! que reggaeton !

remember that observation i made last summer with regard to the snares in reggaeton?

well, i've put together a thing or two since then that help explain where this remarkable, distinctive practice of switching snares every several measures or so has its beginnings: puerto rico in the early 90s, of course, i.e., during the dembow era, when underground referred to raggamuffin flows over sample-based beats, and when top DJs/producers, such as playero, and night clubs / mixtape series, such as the noise, were synonymous with a genre that wasn't so much unnamed as overnamed, bursting with significance and signification, and perhaps not so much "underground" as it was "undergrown" (as i once misread the cover as saying).

it was no doubt growing assiduously, though, and the music and scene have undergone a great deal of growth and change since those early days. even so, the latest reggaeton productions continue to embody this early history - significantly submerged as it may be - in their very sonic structure. mainly, the snares. you see, back in the days of what dj/rupture calls "proto-reggaeton," when the spanish-language reggae/rap made in san juan was called any number of things (including some nasty epithets), you could hear the snares switch just as regularly as you do now. you might not notice though, since everything else would change too.

if you listen to puerto rico's underground music of the 1990s you hear - by and large - a series of flip-tongue, sing-song vocalists rocking risque over homemade versions of recent reggae riddims and hip-hop beats. the favorites are ubiquitous - dem bow, bam bam, drum song - and they cycle in and out of the half-hour to hour mixes that constituted the genre's main medium throughout the decade. not on a song to song basis, mind you, but on a section to section basis, so that a four-bar chop'n'stab loop of the dem bow would be followed by a similar version of a version of the bam bam, then something of the drum song, and so on.

frequently, not only are these loops reassembled - sample-based hip-hop stylee - from well-worn reggae riddims, they're composites of several of them. thus, at times, the dem bow drums might roll along with the bam bam guitar and/or the drum song bass - not to mention the syncopated snare and heavy hi-hat from slick rick's "mona lisa," the sax riff from the 45 king's irrepressible, irresistable "900 number" loop, the bassline from special ed's "i got it made," marley marl's immortal "symphony"-flip of otis redding's piano intro, and various other old school and contemporary hip-hop references. these chopped-and-rearragned loops of recognizable fragments make for a rather resonant mix, and over such steadily shifting accompaniment spanish-slanging MCs with dancehall-derived flows skip triple-time over the beats, often while intoning one of those two-or-three-note dancehall melodies that jamaican DJs have endlessly reworked since the early-mid 80s and which are especially characteristic of early 90s dancehall (a/k/a, ragga).

so those famous shifting snares in all the newest nuendo-nicked pistas played and programmed by luny tunes, et al., are quite closely connected to this foundational practice of versioning the versions, of taking a hip-hop hatchet to reggae's pop-will-eat-itself aesthetics, creating dense, sample-based collages that engage and embody, as they directly index, the popular and no doubt political (for san juan youth) "musica negra," as they used to sing on mixtapes before the tagline became "reggaeton latino" - the "black music" that resounded across the soundscapes of san juan and new york, home and home-away-from-home, and animated a specific sort of youth- and class-based cultural politics in the late 80s and throughout the 90s.

in some ways, the practice is rather consistent with dancehall reggae's own approach to riddim production in the early 90s. think of cutty ranks's "a who seh me done (wake the man)," which shuffles between the familiar strains of the bam bam and a downbeat-centric, hip-hop-inflected beat, or dave kelly's action riddim - another favorite source for underground pistas (via that inescapable terror fabulous and nadine sutherland joint) - a track which juxtaposes starkly contrasting calls and responses to create an effective, affective form. (really, who can resist when the riddim's propulsive percussion yields to - or breaks before - that gloriously naked, bubbling bassline?) the approach also presents a striking parallel to brazilian funk's deployment of a small set of core (electro/bass-derived) rhythm tracks against a panoply of pop culture references - as sampled, as shouted, as captured in a ringtone.

hearing so many snares with new significance, i wonder whether the change in sound mirrors or informs an attendant shift in cultural politics? does this receding presence of hip-hop and reggae, this disappearing sonic blackness, overlay with a broader drift from class-bred commitments to racial and social justice? as samples of jamaican and african-american music yield to synth melodies inspired by merengue, bachata, salsa, freestyle, club/house, and even "tecno" (que chipmunk hoovers!), how do these figures inform the lines of community we draw in our imaginations and interactions? what might the ghostly connections between today's slick, synthetic anthems and the rough-and-rugged, cut'n'paste pistas of the 90s say about race and nation then and now?

.. boom ..

i don't know how long it will be up, but for those of you looking to follow this thread yourselves, there is no better resource than lobo lansky's: an utterly amazing and comprehensive archive of reggaeton albums and mixtapes from the seminal playero 37 to don omar's new highest-charting reggaeton debut. dude's got links to videos, too. not all of the albums are uploaded yet, but lansky intends to have it finished and fleshed out to eight pages (!) by july. since he's only streaming, he may be able to keep it up for a while, but i recommend checking it out while it's still right there in all its digitized splendor.

i highly recommend it, actually. i gotta say, i really enjoy this music. not only is it full of resonant references to a lot of my favorite tunes, it's bursting with energy and creativity (despite being so deeply "derivative"). it's fun, funny, and occasionally poignant. it's unhinged and uninhibited. it's critical as it's conservative. it's vanguard and rearguard at once.

it's all mixed up and not afraid to show its seams.

.. cha-boom chick ..

happy listening over at lansky's - keep yer ears on the snears !!

and your eyes, well, here's something for them (from playero 40):


minkya! che linkya !

  • "what good are roots if you can't take them with you?" - gertrude stein, from paris (in geertz)

  • speaking of which, my misspelling of minkya! the other day was still a good enough rendering for my friend marco to point out that it's actually an italian exclamation (of mild, funny vulgarity), which makes a lot more sense than, say, romany-carny, seeing as my dad's mom's folks came to cambridge via palermo, and since - far as i know - no one in the family ever spent much time "down the lake."

  • maga blog !

  • bravo, aaron fox! long one of my favorite ethnos, aaron has followed up the publication of his excellent book on country music and working class culture, real country, by embracing web technologies, offering musical examples (in mp3 format), additional (color) photographs, video clips, a portal to reviews and supporting materials, and a blog for continuing the conversation around the book!

  • black sheep been blogging on their myspace. this one's my favorite:

    rap vs crack

    Current mood: contemplative
    Category: Music

    sup?.. been a sec.. with our return, we kinda look at the "game" (music industry) and see it from a different perspective... its as though everybody is content in what the record is saying.. and we're puzzled by everything it's not...

    they say the rap game is like the crack game... if thats the case... we know what crack did to our community.. we know what we did and didnt do with that money.. the people who died over streets and product... over ethics and ego... we saw the effect on our brothers, sisters, mothers, children, selves... we hustled and we thought that money would be forever.. it wasnt..

    we didnt move together and pull the strength out of the paper we hustled... we went for self.. we took the bumps and bruises that are required reading with streetlife.. some make it thru.. most don't... at this point in life... we have friends who have worked their entire life.. went to school (various levels)... and beside having damn near everything that some of my hustling friends have... they have a peace of mind.. some of them don't even realize.. the freedom that opportunity presents to you... a chance to do more than just make fuckin money... a chance to live life...

    they say the rap game is like the crack game....

    i think we gonna sell weed... do some hip hop

    say word.

  • finally, since we're in a cut'n'paste mood, please permit me - c/o michael berube (whose jamie stories, from which this comes, never fail to surprise and delight us) - to reproduce a quotation he offers from a jim coetzee book. i will quote it in the context of berube's post:

    ...the more radical implication of Jamie's remark - that you can train an animal to think - is really interesting. And it reminded me of my favorite passage in Coetzee's Elizabeth Costello, about which I also blogged briefly about two years ago. From one of Ms. Costello's (problematic) lectures on animal rights:

    Sultan [a chimpanzee] is alone in his pen. He is hungry: the food that used to arrive regularly has unaccountably ceased coming.

    The man who used to feed him and has now stopped feeding him stretches a wire over the pen three metres above ground level, and hands a bunch of bananas from it. Into the pen he drags three wooden crates. Then he disappears, closing the gate behind him, though he is still somewhere in the vicinity, since one can smell him.

    Sultan knows: Now one is supposed to think. That is what the bananas up there are about. The bananas are there to make one think, to spur one to the limits of one’s thinking. But what must one think? One thinks: Why is he starving me? One thinks: What have I done? Why has he stopped liking me? One thinks: Why does he not want these crates any more? But none of these is the right thought. Even a more complicated thought—for instance: What is wrong with him, what misconception does he have of me, that leads him to believe it is easier for me to reach a banana hanging from a wire than to pick up a banana from the floor?—is wrong. The right thought to think is: How does one use the crates to reach the bananas?

    Sultan drages the crates under the bananas, piles them one on top of the other, climbs the tower he has built, and pulls down the bananas. He thinks: Now will he stop punishing me?

    The answer is: No. The next day the man hangs a fresh bunch of bananas from the wire but also fills the crates with stones so that they are too heavy to be dragged. One is not supposed to think: Why has he filled the crates with stones? One is supposed to think: How does one use the crates to get the bananas despite the fact that they are filled with stones?

    One is beginning to see how the man’s mind works. . . .

    At every turn Sultan is driven to think the less interesting thought. From the purity of speculation (Why do men behave like this?) he is relentlessly propelled towards lower, practical, instrumental reason (How does one use this to get that?) and thus towards acceptance of himself as primarily an organism with an appetite that needs to be satisfied. Although his entire history, from the time his mother was shot and he was captured, through his voyage in a cage to imprisonment on this island camp and the sadistic games that are played around food here, leads him to ask questions about the justice of the universe and the place of this penal colony in it, a carefully plotted psychological regimen conducts him away from ethics and metaphysics towards the humbler reaches of practical reason. And somehow, as he inches through this labyrinth of constraint, manipulation and duplicity, he must realize that on no account dare he give up, for on his shoulders rests the responsibility of representing apedom. The fate of his brothers and sisters may be determined by how well he performs.

  • we'll stop there for now. enjoy the weekend. if you're in the (oh so dreary) boston area and reading this in the next couple hours (sorry), don't miss the latest opening at artinteractive - a sure bet for cool, interesting, techy art!
  • 6.06.2006

    buddha box

    we really adore our "buddha box" --


    but we wish it played fewer minor-key loops. (we're fairly trad/hippy ambient over here. give us a tambura or a shruti box and leave us alone.) this thing's cool, tho, no doubt.

    so, is it true that eno and monolake bought, like, 8000 each?


    why not just lots and lots of batteries?


    and is it true that there's a little buddha inside this thing?

    is it true that hearing every minute as music is something like nirvana ?




    the box hums in accord.




    (can't spend $23 on a plastic thingy? check out a slightly flawed virtual buddha machine.)


    signs of the times

    page up


    link up, duck down

    • maga bo represents brazil, soundly

      it will surprise few that a mix labeled "DNA Brasileira Jamaicana: Jamaica inna Brazil e Brasil no Jamaica" is right up our alley here at w&w -- indeed, substitute "hip-hop" for "brazil" there and you've practically got the title to the dissertation; note that said mix contains a strong hip-hop presence -- como você diz 'inextricable' no português?

    • good cause: speaking in code, a locally-produced, feature-length documentary on the contemporary world of techno, is having a benefit (and sharing an "aciton" mp3)

    • speaking of which, sorta, dr.hawtin was stellar as usual last night -- great to hear some freestyle (i.e., repeatedly triggered vox) and rave (i.e., hoover!) in the minimal mix

    • open studios this weekend at the distillery in southie: see the second exhibit at second gallery, among others.

    • well said, mr.frank

    • well said, mr.rogers !


    aes rock spam bot ?!

    since when did def jux get into the spam game?